Wednesday, August 26, 2009
Are hunting industry deliberately producing deer for recreational hunting? plus what is "Compensatory Rebound Effect"??
If hunting is about "reduction" why then in "deer management" websites so much emphasis is put on food plots and PRODUCTION of fawns preferably the males? Here are some example of what I mean and please read carefully.
"The number of new deer added to the pre-hunt population is a function of the number of fawns born and their survival until until the fall. The number of fawns born is primarily determined by the number of does, but the survival of fawns, however, is mostly dependent upon the physical condition of does, although predation is certainly a factor is some situations. A large number of does that are nutritionally stressed will not raise as many fawns to be added to the fall population as a lesser number of healthy does." Deer Hunting and Management TX
"Thus, late fall up to early winter is very important for deer herd managers to impact and influence fawn production, so make sure the plant communities on your property is properly managed deer habitat. " Deer Hunting and Management TX
"Some people disagree with shooting antlerless deer; they reason that protecting them -- thus maintaining a maximum breeding base -- will assure large numbers of antlered bucks because terrific numbers of deer will be born each year and button bucks wouldn't be harvested. "PA. Game Commission
"Historically in all states, including West Virginia, hunting regulation have been restrictive during the period of deer restoration with mainly short buck-only season to protect does and encourage deer population growth. As deer becomes more abundant, more liberal hunting regulations including antlerless harvest are required to limit population growth." Fundamentals of Deer Management W. VA.
" Fawn crop is often density dependent. Generally, as doe numbers increase, fawn production per doe decreases. Fewer does can and often do raise more fawns to weaning age than more abundant does." QDM
Doesn't sound like reduction there does it? Continue...
"Deer managers agree that supplemental feeding, whether it be protein pellets, whole cotton seed, or some other type of high-protein food, really helps local deer populations." Deer Management TX
"Managing for proper nutrition in white-tailed deer is important for good body condition, good fawn production and recruitment, and maximum antler growth. Good nutrition can be accomplished by doing three things that involve proper habitat management, supplemental feeding, and the planting of food plots." Deer Managemetn TX
What is the definition of "recruit"?
1. to raise or strengthen (an army, navy, deer herd) by enlisting personnel (in this case, fawns)
3. to enlist (new members), as for a party or organization (or deer to kill for sports)
2. to increase or maintain by supplying anew; replenish (which of course is deer, preferably bucks)
more statements about "adding" deer.
P.129 "With supplemental feeding, it becomes very easy to maitain artificialy high deer densities and still obtain adequate results in terms of antler and body growth." Producing Quality Whitetails Revised Edition
Al Brothers and Murphy E. Ray, Jr. Edited by Charly McTee
" Thus, does are healthier, reproductive
success is higher and more does are able to carry two fawns. Ironically, this can result in a greater deer harvest each year." Quality Deer Management
"With high quality habitat and increased nutrition, the percentage of doe fawns that breed their first fall increases (sometimes up to 25 percent).. Also, a higher percentage of yearling does produce two fawns instead of one." Quality Deer Management
"Because fawns are born at approximately a 1:1 sex ratio, more bucks maybe born each year. Therefore, in some areas, you actually can increase the number of bucks born by shooting more does." Quality Deer Management
"Other habitat management practices that can improve the quantity and quality of forage available to deer (thus increasing carrying capacity)" Quality Deer Management
Create more land to plant food plots thus more deer you can hold on that area.
"We strive to maintain a deer herd that each year that can provide quality sport to more than a million hunters." PA Deer FAQ
"Let's assume that 75 percent of a whitetail's daily food consumption consists of prime agricultural crops, the other 25 percent of native browse. Such heavy utilization of food plots isn't theoretical; at North American Whitetail's Fort Perry Plantation in Georgia, agricultural crops make up 80 percent of the herd's annual diet. And under management, the deer density increased to more than five times that of natural carrying capacity - even as the health of the natural habitat steadily improved. Here's the key to why whitetails do so well when provided with the right food plots:" North American Whitetails
"If you're not providing the local herd with enough of the right groceries for maximum antler and body size, as well as high fawn survival, you're not enjoying the full benefits of sound management." North American Whitetails
"Varmints, specifically coyotes, are the biggest threats to fawn recruitment on most land throughout the United States. "Deer Management TX
(graphic came from TX Deer Management website)
It's bad enough hunting public wants to create land to kill but they want to "team up" with farmers and even land owners.
"Last year we planted a total of 6 food plots from soybean (biologic) to fall foliage. We also had a local farmer plant 26 acres of field corn and another 2 acres of sweet corn. Again we saw positive effects of what can happen when quality food plots are planted and knowing the PH and how much fertilizer to use." The New York Hunters.
"If you are fortunate enough to have permission to hunt on someone else's private property; ask permission to establish a whitetail deer food plot and tell the owner of that hunting land exactly what you want and plan to do. If the hunting land owner is a farmer, you may even get some help with the site preparation and use of equipment. "
Is this the reason why Dept Of Natural Resources (DNR) and hunters rejects deer birth control? And the reason why the most heavily hunted states always have too many deer thus high Deer Vehicle Accidents?
Deer will also seek refuge to other possibly non-hunting areas from gunshots and hunters terrorizing the forest meaning with hunting you will wonder why you see more deer in your area then you did before, that's because the deer are trying to find peace for themselves and their families from wildlife terrorists.
Now you know that the intention of the hunting organization is to produce deer to where there is enough to satisfy their sick bloodlust year after year and good blood money for the pro-kill government to create more killing fields as human also die from DVA's.
Let's not forget "Compensatory rebound effect" which most hunters know and obviously DNR knows and use it to their advantage.
"Culling"/hunting does not work. It is more than neutralized by a natural phenomenon called the "Compensatory Rebound Effect". When food become scarce, deer would naturally curtail their reproductive rate down to no fawn or single fawn. When food is plentiful, their reproductive rate would increase to twins and triplets. The ideal is a marginal "over-population" so that the reproductive rate is kept low and the population remains stable in the long term. If a significant portion of the population is culled to below carrying capacity, what is accomplished is the raising of the reproductive rate to the point when the next year WILL show a higher "overpopulation" (Which the hunting organization knows about and use that to their advantage)"
"Take a piece of land with a carry capacity of, say 8 does. If it contains 10 does, their total fawn crop would be around 3 fawns, totaling 13 deer at the end of the year. Whereas, if the 10 does were reduced to 5 by culling, the remaining 5 does would produce around 8 fawns in total, resulting again in 13 deer at the end of the year. This is called the Compensatory Rebound Effect (CRE). The hunters know this, but the public does not, thus allowing the hunters to have their self-perpetuating way." Anthony Marr
What is reproductive rebound?
"Reproductive rebound is a well documented population dynamic in deer and other mammals. Deer conceive multiple embryos but the number of fawns actually born is determined by a number of complex factors including nutrition and herd density. With competition for food reduced by a sudden drop in herd numbers, younger fawns will breed and females will give birth to twins and triplets instead of single fawns.
In its 1990 report, "An Assessment of Deer Hunting in New Jersey," New Jersey Fish and Game offered a detailed example of this process. Its report shows that even during hunting seasons in which killing female deer was the objective (antlerless seasons), the remaining females had increased birthrates that not only replaced the ones killed, but increased the overall size of the herd. " PZP FAQ's
"One reason the policies failed, Choisy and Rohani said, is that they didn’t take into account an ecological principle known as compensation. When a portion of the animal population is reduced, those that survive are left with more resources such as food and shelter. As a result of the newly plentiful resources, the death rate decreases and the birth rate increases, compensating – and sometimes overcompensating – for the loss. Hunting Can Increase The Severity Of Wildlife Disease Epidemics"
DNR knows about CRE and use it to their advantage for more fawn birth thus larger deer herd size and you can see their main interest in the buck fawns.
“By keeping the deer population below the carrying capacity of the available habitat, more forage (nutrition) is available per deer. Thus, does are healthier, reproductive success is higher and more does are able to carry two fawns. Ironically, this can result in a greater deer harvest each year. Depending on the relationship of the population and the carrying capacity, an „optimum sustained yield‟ can be achieved where a relatively high reproductive rate allows an abundant harvest each fall. With high-quality habitat and increased nutrition, the percentage of
doe fawns that breed their first fall increases (sometimes up to 25 percent). Also, a higher percentage of yearling does produce two fawns instead of one. Because fawns are born at approximately a 1:1 sex ratio, more bucks may be born each year. Therefore, in some areas, you actually can increase the number of bucks born by shooting more does.” “Quality Deer Management: Guidelines for Implementation,” 6. Agricultural Extension Service, The University of Tennessee. http://www.utextension.utk.edu/publications/pbfiles/pb1643.pdf (last accessed November 2008)
"Some people disagree with shooting antlerless deer; they reasn that protecting them -- thus maintaining a maximum breeding base -- will assure large number of antlered bucks because terrific numbers of deer will be born each year and button bucks wouldn't be harvested. But bear in mind, a smaller herd in balance with its habitat can produce as many fawns as an oversized herd on poor range. Does have fewer young when habitat quality is lacking" PA Game Commission
Read more about Compensatory Rebound Effect here