Wednesday, October 27, 2010

Wildlife Contraception Response to DNRE Supervisor


From: Defenders of Urban Wildlife
Date: Wed, Oct 27, 2010 at 10:17 AM

Subject: Contraception response
Hi, as some of you know I have had a dialogue on and off with Sara Schaefer, the DNRE Supervisor for Southwest MI. As you also know, Sara has told me (written emails) that GH does NOT have a deer overpopulation problem but a deer browse/social carrying capacity problem. And as you know, we brought Sandy Baker (leading expert in the nation on deer behavior and how to garden in areas where deer browse) to town in August 2009.

Sara also told me that in the DNRE's opinion, Ottawa County has too many deer so even though she does not think there are too many deer in the city of GH - she accepts any help she can get with lowering her numbers. She does NOT dispute that the DNRE policy mismanages the herd(s) nor did she disagree with compensatory rebound or the fact that the herds are artificially propagated to serve the hunting community.

That said, my latest conversation with her has centered around contraception for urban deer. When we first met Sara three or four years ago at the first public meeting in GH City Hall, she refused to even address the issue of birth control or take questions from the audience about it. You can see from her response below that she seems to be coming around somewhat. I have tried to address her reasons for continuing to not embrace contraception more than she already has.

It is long but those of you I sent this to are people I think should know and have this info.

Thanks for your ongoing support for our wild ones! Sue

From: Defenders of Urban Wildlife Date: Wed, Oct 27, 2010 at 9:58 AM
Subject: Contraception response
To: Sara Schaefer

Hi Sara,
As I promised, I am responding to your comments on deer contraception. Please review the letter to the editor below written by Jay F. Kirkpatrick, Ph.D., the Director of The Science and Conservation Center, who is recognized as one of the worlds leading authorities on wildlife contraception. His letter is in response to a letter written by Jerry Feaser, Press Secretary of the Pa Game Commission. I also attached an article in Microsoft Word on deer contraception by Peter Muller, for your review. I think this letter and article will address some of your concerns about contraception.

You wrote:
As far as contraception – the cost is not why we have a problem supporting it’s use. The issue is that it works fine with penned deer that can be contained in one area and individually identified (ear tags). The contraception technique is only effective when you dose each doe multiple times over its lifetime. With wild deer, they move around so much that it would be too difficult to make sure you get each individual each year. If you don’t use the technique the way it is designed, then you might as well put the dart with the medicine in it directly in the trash. Perhaps this is why you think it is a money issue. We would gladly use the technique (especially in urban areas) if we could figure out a way to keep the deer in one spot from year to year, and also be able to individually identify them.

Let me try to address your specific objections to contraception below:

The issue is that it works fine with penned deer that can be contained in one area and individually identified (ear tags).

There are several published, peer reviewed, scientific studies on deer contraception (see references in J. Kirkpatrick's letter) showing population reductions of 60% and 40% of free-ranging deer populations. Some of these studies used ear tags and some didn't. There's really no credible scientific debate anymore that deer contraception doesn't work in urban/suburban environments to reduce and manage deer populations effectively - it's a fact.

The contraception technique is only effective when you dose each doe multiple times over its lifetime.

This is true, but it's a safe and effective method of population reduction and management. Current hunting/culling programs require lethal weapons to be used every year in densely populated residential communities putting residents at serious risk. In addition, Allen Rutberg Ph.D., Research Professor, Center for Animals and Public Policy, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, currently has a four year vaccine in field studies, which, if successful, will only require the vaccine to be administered once every four years. Furthermore, hunting has proven to be ineffective in reducing deer populations, i.e. not enough deer are killed to offset compensatory rebound, and is why once started, it has to be continued Ad infinitum.

With wild deer, they move around so much that it would be too difficult to make sure you get each individual each year.

A deer's home range is usually small, and typically less than a square mile. That data is based on deer home range studies in heavily forested and/or rural areas, or as you termed "wild deer" populations. Deer typically don't move around all that much. In addition, in urban/suburban discrete populations, the deer home ranges are typically much smaller, i.e. they are not as free-ranging. These deer families are much more contained by roads, fences, homes and urban sprawl. So deer movement is not an major obstacle for a successful urban/suburban contraception program. I for one, know several of the deer families in the areas from where the GH City Council receives the most complaints.

There are a number of successful strategies for contraception darting:

1) Ear tagging, but the down side of ear tagging is that it's resource intensive and takes more time.
2) Paint darts. These darts inject the vaccine and mark the deer with paint to identify them, so that you don't dart them twice.
3) Just dart all the deer you see. You will probably dart some deer twice, but the vaccine isn't that expensive, and it doesn't harm the deer. It's not necessary to contracept every deer in the community for a contraception program to be successful. That being said, if you spend some time studying the deer families within an urban/suburban community, you will get to know the deer groups, their home ranges, and where they bed down, and can effectively dart the majority of the population w/o ear tags or paint darts. Again, I for one know several of the deer families in the areas from where GH City Council receives the most complaints.

4) There are also some baiting strategies for effective deer darting.

Below is a copy of Jay Kirkpatrick's letter to the editor in response to Jerry Feaser, Press Secretary of the Pa Game Commission, regarding the effectiveness of deer contraception.

Response to PA Game Commission by Jay Kirkpatrick, Ph.D., January, 2007

(In the Bucks County Courier Times, January 15, 2007 the following letter by Jerry Feaser, Press Secretary for the Pennsylvania Game Commission appeared. Because of space contraints, the paper could not publish the response of Jay Kirkpatrick, Ph.D., a prize winning wildlife researcher with more than 20 years experience in the filed of contraception and wildlife reproduction. His response in its entirety follows Feaser's letter.)

The game commission is responsible for conserving and managing all wild birds and mammals in Pennsylvania and conducts many wildlife conservation programs for the public. Despite these efforts that benefit all Pennsylvanians, it is true that the agency does not receive any state tax payer funds and is supported by hunters’ dollars.

However, it is not true that the commission does not sterilize deer because hunters do not want fewer deer. Hunters have successfully reduced deer populations in most rural areas. When addressing deer conflicts in more developed areas, the agency and hunters have maintained a consistent effort to reduce deer populations with hunting and non-hunting options.

Recent research has concluded that it is unlikely that using the current sterilization methods alone will reduce the free-ranging deer population that exists throughout Pennsylvania, including lower Bucks County. In addition, fertility control is limited to experimental situations because the FDA has not ruled the drugs safe and effective for use in wildlife and are not available for use with free-ranging deer. Sterilization also is expensive with an estimated cost of up to $1,000 per deer. Research also suggests that use of hunting, alone or in combination with other management actions, may be the only way to effectively reduce free-ranging deer populations.

As part of our urban deer management plan, the Game Commission is developing a written policy on fertility control and will update the policy as science and research provides new information. For the game commission, the choice is clear: hunting costs communities nothing, and is the best option when compared to an unproven, experimental procedure that is cost prohibitive.

Jerry Feaser
Press Secretary
Pennsylvania Game Commission

I shall respond...(to Feaser's letter on "sterilization." ) That said, or written, please keep in mind that journalism regarding this subject has been, for a decade or more, embarrassingly shabby, inaccurate and misleading and for the most part reflects a lot of passionate opinions and theories but little of factual substance.

At the outset, I would like to make two points clear. First, I do not advocate the use of contraception for deer, at Tyler Park or anywhere else. I merely convey facts, data, and scientifically-supported conclusions. Urban and suburban deer problems are local issues and it is not my domain to advocate any management approach outside my home city here in Billings. The Tyler deer are someone else's deer and someone else is responsible for decisions about their management. Second, I do not deal in opinions. I deal only in facts, derived from controlled studies, appropriate analysis and peer-reviewed published data. With that stated, let's examine the article's salient points.

To begin with, "sterilization" is an inaccurate and misleading term. Contraception, which is what the debate is all about, is reversible fertility inhibition, but not sterilization. Spaying is sterilization; neutering is sterilization, but condoms, pills, diaphragms, IUDs, and immunocontraception (vaccines) are reversible and by definition, contraception. The paper's editors, and both authors should be more careful about their use of inaccurate terms.

Mr. Feaser's letter is a masterpiece of hyperbole, misinformation and dissembling. First, he makes no distinction between urban/suburban deer and rural deer and the contraceptive technology, which was developed only for deer herds where traditional management methods are not deemed legal, wise, safe or publicly acceptable. The failure to make this clear at the outset pits the hunting community against the broad concept of management by contraception.

Second, Mr. Feaser contends that "...the agency have maintained a consistent effort to reduce deer populations with hunting and non-hunting options." We all understand hunting, but I, at least, am unaware of the non-hunting efforts to reduce deer populations. He had every right to make this assertion, but then should be compelled to explain what those non-hunting efforts are.

Next he states "Recent research has concluded that it is unlikely that using current sterilization [sic] methods alone will reduce the free-ranging deer population that exists throughout Pennsylvania, including lower Bucks County." This sentence is filled with hyperbole and distractions from the issues at hand. First, he continues to label reversible contraception as "sterilization" and that is really not a terribly complex construct. Second, he once again mixes the rural deer population of all of Pennsylvania and Bucks County with discrete urban/suburban populations, apparently in an attempt to mislead. At no time, at no venue, have I or any other scientist involved in wildlife contraception suggested that contraception (or sterilization!) could solve "Pennsylvania's or Bucks County's deer population" problems. The technology in question was developed for discrete urban/suburban populations where traditional lethal methods are not deemed legal, wise, safe or publicly acceptable.

Second, he cites no references for this "research". I, on the other hand, will be happy to cite the results of actual research. Naugle at al. 2002. Reproduction (Suppl. 60): 143-153 reports on a deer contraceptive project being conducted on Fire ISland National Seashore (FINS), for the National Park Service. There are about 15 communities interspersed along the National Seashore's 30 mile length and thus far immunocontraception has reduced the population by approximately 60%. That's not an opinion. That's fact. So that I may not be accused of hyperbole too, let me make it clear here that contraception is not a good way to quickly reduce a population of deer, or any long-lived species. It can achieve zero population growth relatively fast but it takes some time to actually reduce the population, but it can - and has - been done. Next, one might go read Rutberg et al. 2004. Biological Conservation 116:243-250. This peer-reviewed paper describes a deer contraceptive project being conducted for the U. S. Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology, in Gaithersburg, MD. This population of deer has been reduced by approximately 40% through the exclusive use of contraception. I could cite several other papers but these will suffice for now. Incidentally, although it hasn't been published yet, the Gaithersburg data also indicates a decrease in deer-car collisions coincident with the reduction in deer population as a result of contraception.

There have been many other deer contraceptive projects, conducted by other government agencies (USDA) and academic institutions and proprietary companies, but none have been conducted longitudinally, over long periods of time, and at the population level. These other studies have tested safety, efficacy, and so forth, but not population effects.

Now Mr. Feaser next moves on the foil that most opponents use to discredit deer contraception. He states that "...FDA has not ruled the drugs safe and effective for wildlife..." and that they have to be used "experimentally". That is true as far as it goes, but Mr. Feaser fails to tell the entire story, and in doing this misrepresents what is actually going on. At least at present FDA is the regulatory authority for wildlife contraceptives (that responsibility will be shifted to the EPA, probably within the next 12 months). The usual procedure for the development of a new drug within FDA is to generate "pilot" data, which provides some reasonable but no ultimate data regarding safety and then apply for something referred to as an Investigational New Animal Drug (INAD) exemption. THis document, which exists for the immunocontraceptive in question here, "authorizes" the use of the drug by the FDA, in experimental settings. This is almost exactly what takes place with new cancer drugs for humans. Relatively few cancer drugs utilized for human medicine are FDA "approved" but rather they are used "experimentally". Thus, the FDA has deemed the immunocontraceptive in question as safe enough to use experimentally and we use it under FDA authorization. Now, the second step for the development of a commercial drug is, if no problems emerge from the use under the INAD, to move from an INAD to something known as an New Animal Drug Application (NADA). This step requires millions of dollars and many many years of additional research. We have never taken this step, for several reasons. First, there is no promise of financial return for a wildlife contraceptive. The market is just too small, thus the investment of millions of dollars just won't happen. Second, it was our philosophy that because most of the research on this immunocontraceptive (something known as porcine zona pellucida vaccine, or PZP) was originally funded with public money, over 35 years, the outcome of that research already belongs to the public and should not be used to generate profit for a proprietary company. That is a private philosophy, common to our research group and certainly not a universal attitude among scientists. In any case, we took steps to make sure the native PZP cannot be patented for use in wildlife and continue to use it under the FDA INAD. That is a far cry from Mr. Feaser's gaunt description.

Now let's add to that, that this vaccine has been around for about 35 years and much of the research focused on human contraception. It never made it to that market because (1) no one has been able to synthesize the product; it must be laboriously produced by what we refer to as "bench chemistry" on a very small scale. The failure to produce a synthetic form of the vaccine meant that a large human market could never be serviced. We labor here to manufacture about 5,000 doses a year. The second reason it never made it to the human market was the variability in the time for the antifertility effects to reverse. We see that all the time, in wild horses and deer and about 100 species of zoo animals that are currently under treatment. All the pharmaceutical companies could see was litigation. Neither of those constraints represent a safety issue, after 35 years.

Let's examine the safety issue just a little bit more. The vaccine has been used on the wild horses of Assateague Island National Seashore, in Maryland, for 18 years now, and what safety issues have arisen? Well, first, the body condition scores of the population have increased significantly (see Turner and Kirkpatrick. 2002. Reproduction. (Suppl. 60):187-195), mortality has decreased significantly (same paper), the vaccine has proven to be safe to give to pregnant animals (see Kirkpatrick et al. 1991. J. Reprod. Fert. (Suppl. 44) 321-325), doesn't cause changes in seasonal birth patterns or the health of foals born to treated mothers (see Kirklpatrick et al. J. Appl. Anim. Welfare Sci. 6:301-308) and has extended the longevity of the treated horses by more than 10 years (see Kirkpatrick and Turner 2002. J. Reprod. Fert. (Suppl. 60): 197-202; Kirkpatrick and Turner 2007. Zoo Biol. 25:1-8), nor have any behavioral changes been noted (see Powell 1999. J. Appl. Anim. Welfare Sci. 2:321-335) nor have there been any deleterious physiological changes regarding the ovary or endocrine system (see Kirkpatrick et al. 1995. Biol. Reprod. Monograph Series I: Equine Reproduction VI: 411-418; Powell and Monfort 2001. J. Appl. Anim. Welfare Sci. 4:271-284) I could go on, and cite dozens of other papers regarding the use and safety of this vaccine in other species (some 50 of them, including a lot of primates) but I think the point is made. Finally, the vaccine is a protein and ninth grade biology students who are paying attention in class know that proteins can't pass through the food chain. Does this all sound unsafe?

This explanation is a far cry from Mr. Feaser's attempt to use a sound byte, but that is what is necessary if we are to truly understand what is going on. While I must live with sound bytes and slogans from my politicians, I don't intend to accept that form of discourse in the scientific world. Let's move on.

Next. Mr. Feaser tackles the economic dimensions of deer contraception. He quotes a figure of $1,000 per deer. The cost of the vaccine is $21/dose (we, by law, must provide it at our cost of production, with no profit), the dart costs about $1.50, and the bulk of the labor to do the darting is where the real cost lies. Costs will vary from site to site, depending on who is doing the work and what they are paid. If you want to pay someone $80,000 a year to dart deer, the cost will be high; if you want to use trained volunteers the cost is less; if you use employees already employed by a park, or agency, or whatever, the cost is somewhere between. I actually can't say what the costs would be in any given site because of these variables, but I kept the books for the first two years of the Fire Island project and the costs never exceeded $10,000. That included a two or three air fares from Ohio and Montana to New York, and we treated about 150 deer. My math shows that to come out to about $66/deer. I wonder who estimated the $1,000 per deer.

Now Mr. Feaser goes on to say that "Research also suggests that the use of hunting alone or in combination with other management actions, may be the only way to effectively reduce free-ranging deer populations". If Mr. Feaser is talking about the deer in Potter County, or even all of Bucks County, I might agree, but we are not talking about the deer in Potter County or all of Bucks County. we are still talking about discrete urban/suburban deer populations. This is one more attempt to confuse the issues. And, if Mr. Feaser bothers to read the papers cited above, he knows that his statement is not factual.

He closes with descriptions of deer contraception as unproven (not accurate- see above), experimental (true, see above) and cost prohibitive (not accurate, see above).

I am not dismayed by the passion that accompanies this subject, nor am I dismayed if a community chooses not to use contraception. That is local business and not mine. What does upset me, is knowingly manipulating information, hyperbole, attempts to frighten people with skewed information and an anti-intellectual approach to debates that excludes facts and data and substitute opinion. Does any of that sound familiar on a larger scale?

Incidentally, lest anyone attempts to pigeonhole me in some social activist group, I have hunted deer for most of my life and I started in Bucks County more than 50 years ago.

You have my permission to share this response with anyone, but I certainly believe the editorial board of the newspaper in question should be required to see in just what kind of journalism they are participating.

Jay F. Kirkpatrick, Ph.D.
The Science and Conservation Center
2100 South Shiloh Road
Billings, MT 59106

Monday, October 25, 2010

Compensatory Rebound Effect (CRE) is why killing does not work .

You will often get comments like this from Hunters. "CRE is still junk science."Compensatory Rebound Effect is the reason why killing does not work but the hunters and the hunting industry wants to deny it and rather call is 'AR propaganda" or "junk science" . We shall see for ourselves if this is really "propaganda" or "junk science". First of all
What is Compensatory Rebound Effect?
"Reproductive rebound is a well documented population dynamic in deer and other mammals. Deer conceive multiple embryos but the number of fawns actually born is determined by a number of complex factors including nutrition and herd density. With competition for food reduced by a sudden drop in herd numbers, younger fawns will breed and females will give birth to twins and triplets instead of single fawns.In its 1990 report, "An Assessment of Deer Hunting in New Jersey," New Jersey Fish and Game offered a detailed example of this process. Its report shows that even during hunting seasons in which killing female deer was the objective (antlerless seasons), the remaining females had increased birthrates that not only replaced the ones killed, but increased the overall size of the herd. "
CRE is mentioned by others people who have nothing to do with Animal Rights.
"The researchers note that in each instance, disease outbreaks have worsened in response to the hunting.One reason the policies failed, Choisy and Rohani said, is that they didn’t take into account an ecological principle known as compensation. When a portion of the animal population is reduced, those that survive are left with more resources such as food and shelter. As a result of the newly plentiful resources, the death rate decreases and the birth rate increases, compensating – and sometimes overcompensating – for the loss."
Hunting Can Increase The Severity Of Wildlife Disease Epidemics
And GUESS WHAT? The hunting industry knows darn well about it and uses it to produce more deer, that with the use of food plot, to really "boost" the deer population. They are so preoccupied with fawn birth to create larger deer herd size and their main interest in the buck fawns.
“By keeping the deer population below the carrying capacity of the available habitat, more forage (nutrition) is available per deer. Thus, does are healthier, reproductive success is higher and more does are able to carry two fawns. Ironically, this can result in a greater deer harvest each year. Depending on the relationship of the population and the carrying capacity, an „optimum sustained yield‟ can be achieved where a relatively high reproductive rate allows an abundant harvest each fall. With high-quality habitat and increased nutrition, the percentage ofdoe fawns that breed their first fall increases (sometimes up to 25 percent). Also, a higher percentage of yearling does produce two fawns instead of one. Because fawns are born at approximately a 1:1 sex ratio, more bucks may be born each year. Therefore, in some areas, you actually can increase the number of bucks born by shooting more does.”“Quality Deer Management: Guidelines for Implementation,” 6. Agricultural Extension Service, The University of Tennessee. (last accessed November 2008)
Also watch
How Killing Female Deer at the Watchung Reservation Increased Birth Rates and Reproduction